March 2016 Answers

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(Mar. 27 – Apr. 2) Micah was in a house fire and suffered carbon monoxide intoxication. What chemical imbalance did this cause to his body?

(B) Metabolic acidosis. The carbon monoxide (CO) binds to hemoglobin with an affinity 250 times more than oxygen. This binding of CO causes the other three oxygen molecules on that hemoglobin molecule to bind tightly and not detach in regions of tissue that are hypoxic. As a result, lactic acidosis occurs, which is a type of metabolic acidosis.

(Mar. 20 – Mar. 26) Megan had her gall bladder removed. Why did the surgeon tell her there are certain types of food she should avoid?

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(E) The gall bladder stores bile that emulsifies fats. When fats are emulsified, they are broken down into small pieces to increase their surface area/volume ratio, but not into their building blocks. They are broken down into their building blocks (fatty acids and monoglycerides) by pancreatic lipase. As a result, Megan would have to avoid eating fatty foods. Pepsinogen is secreted by the Chief cells of the stomach and once activated by the stomach acid to pepsin, it digests proteins.

(Mar. 13 – Mar. 19) In the digestive system, what is the function of CCK?

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(E) Contraction of the gall bladder and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi. CCK stands for Cholecystokinin. If you break up this word, “chole” means “bile”; “cyst” means “bladder”; and “kinin” means “movement.” In other words, CCK is the hormone that makes bile, move from the (gall) bladder. In order to release the bile from the gall bladder, CCK that is secreted from I cells of the duodenum and jejunum causes the gall bladder to contract and squeeze the bile out of it. The Sphincter of Oddi is the smooth muscular opening of the common bile duct into the duodenum. This sphincter has to relax in order to open up and allow the bile to be dumped into the duodenum and allow digestion of fat.

(Mar. 6 – Mar. 12) Jose was camping and encountered a bear. What division of the nervous system would be activated to help him run away?

(D) Sympathetic to increase his heart rate. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system both are branches of the autonomic nervous system, which is involuntarily controlled. The sympathetic acts to increase heart rate and the parasympathetic acts to decrease heart rate. The heart rate needs to increase to help Jose run away, in order to increase blood flow to the organs (i.e. muscles) to help deliver nutrients and remove wastes while he runs. If you remember, “S(y)mba” from the movie the Lion King, then this helps you to remember that if you see “S(y)mba the lion, then your heart rate will increase and so will breathing.”